A. Application Evolutions:
     A.1 Artificial Intelligence
     A.2 Network Communications and WWW
     A.3 Brief History of Computer Network
     A.4 E-Commerce
     A.5 Web Services
  A.1 Artificial Intelligence
  1. Game Playing: Early work
        Common Board Games, well defined.
        Hugh state space required heuristic search techniques.
        Inexact/incomplete information.
        Difficulty in designing a good evaluation function to guide search.
  2. Automated Reasoning/Theorem Proving: Early work
        Predicate Calculus and Resolution procedure
        Contributions to Formalizing search algorithms and developing
        formal representation languages like PROLOG.
  3. Expert Systems
        Importance of domain-specific knowledge and
        problem solving techniques.
        Knowledge Engineering: 
               Effective representation of expert knowledge
        Inference Engine: Control strategy implementation.
        Successful examples:
          DENDRAL (Organic molecule structure analysis)
          MYCIN (Bacterial infection diagnosis and treatment)
          PROSPECTOR (Ore deposit location finder)
        Some deficiencies:
        a. Lack of deep knowledge of problem domain.
        b. Lack of robustness and flexibility
           Inability to deal with unanticipated problem instances.
        c. Inability to provide deep explanations.
        d. Little learning from experiences.
        Structure of typical Expert System:
          1.    Knowledge Base (Rule-based Production System)
               contains general knowledge about a certain domain like chemistry
               or internal medicine
          2.    Inference Engine: Brain of the system
               contains the problem solving knowledge and control strategies
               for choosing more promising alternatives.
          3.    Working Memory
               contains information about s particular problem being
               considered and its contents change dynamically during the execution
               of the system.
          4.    Explanation subsystem
               keeps track of all rules being applied to be used as the basis
               for the final conclusion/action to be explained later upon request..
  4. Natural Language Understanding
        a. Understanding and generating human languages.
        b. Representation of background knowledge on domain of discourse.
        c. Difficulties in resolving the omissions and ambiguities 
           inherent in human expressions.
        Winograd's SHRDLU: Blocks World
  5. Planning and Robotics
        a. Planning originally was finding a sequence of actions for
        b. Ability to respond to changing environmental conditions
           and to cope with incomplete information.
        c. New areas of planning include Coordination of complex set
           of tasks and goals.
  6. Machine learning
        a. Most E.S. lacks learning capability, solving the same
           problem instance the same way a second time or a third time.
        b. Learning from experience, analogy or examples.
        c. Successes of machine learning programs suggest the existence
           of a set of general learning principles.
  A.2. Network Communications and WWW.
        a. WWW invented in 1990 by Tim Berners Lee of CERN
           (European Laboratory for Particle Physics) for distributed
           information exchange system.
        b. Web pages have become a worldwide standard due to
           standardization of TCP/IP and adoption of HTML.
             TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
                Data transmission stardards for all different computers
               to be able to communicate. 
             IP (Internet Protocol)
               Standard for specifying addresses of host computers
               to correctly deliver E-messages to proper destinations
               as well as correctly identifying senders.
             HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)
                Standard language to write WWW documents that all
               browsers understand.
        c. Web Browsers
               Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer.
               Software to mediate between client computers and
               server computers in displaying WWW documents (web pages).
  A.3 Brief History of Computer Network
        1. ARPANET in 1969, Cold war era.
        Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD)
        Initial goal:
          Experimental computer network to support research.
          In particular, research about how to build computer network that can 
          withstand partial outages (like bomb attacks) and still function. 
        It soon adopted the IP Protocol.
        2. Other networks adopted IP protocol and joined ARPANET soon including
        five supercomputer centers, NSFNEt, CSNET and THEnet (Texas Higher Education)
        3. In 1990 it became InterNet (A network of networks)
        a. Packet switching, no dedicated channels for particular
           transmission like telephone switching system.
           A packet: a piece of message of about 1500 characters
        b. IP addressing system
           Each host computer has a unique address made up of
           four numbers, each up to 256,  (2**8 )
           Possible number of addresses: roughly  4,000,000,000
        c. DNS (Domain Name System)
           To use names instead of numbers for IP addresses.
           This allows an IP address to be specified by a series of
           domain names such as
                where 'EDU' is the highest domain name.      
               Originally, there were six highest domain names:
               MIL     (military establishments)
               ORG     (Non-profit organization)
               NET     (network resources)
        4. Some issues of Internet/WWW
               Access only by authorized parties (or the protection of data from disclosure)
               In particular, the intended receiver must receive the message transmitted.
               Assurance that the communicating entity is the one it claims to be.
               Assurance that data received are exactly as sent by an authorized entity 
               (or Modification only by authorized parties)
               Provides protection against denial by one of the entities involved involved 
               in a communication of having participated in all or part of the communication. 
           Criminal Activities
           Appropriate Net Behavior
           Lack of Central Control, No Government Control
  A.4. E-Commerce
        Although the term is fairly new, large corporations have been 
        conducting e-commerce for decades, by networking systems together with
        those of business partners and clients.
        Banking industry uses EFT to transfer money between accounts. 
        Many companies also use EDI(Electronic Data Interchange), in which 
        business forms such as purchase orders and invoices are standardized 
        so that companies can share information with customers, vendors and 
        business partners electronically.
        Until recently, e-commerce was feasible only for large companies. 
        The Internet and the World Wide Web make it possible for even small 
        businesses to compete with large companies. 
        E-coomerce allows companies to conduct business 24 hours
        a day, seven days a week, worldwide.
        Internet is an inherently insecure medium comprised of vast networks and millions of 
        computers. It is important to secure the network transactions, to protect
        such pprivate information as credit card numbers transferred between merchants
        and clients.
        Some successful models
        1. Shopping-Cart Technology: Most successful model
        This order-processing technology allows customers to accumulate and store lists of items
        they wish to purchase as they continue to shop. Supporting the shopping
        cart is the product catalog, which is hosted on the merchant server in the form
        of database.
        The online caalog allows you to navigate quickly among millions of product
        offerings. It uses a sophisticated database on the server side that allows 
        on the client side to search for misslions of products in a variety of ways.
        Buying a product at Amazon is simple. You begin at the Amazon.Com home page
        and decide the type of product you would like to purchase. For example   
        if you are looking for a book, you can find the book by using the Search Box
        in the top-left corner of the home page. Selct the Books in the Search Box, then type
        the title of the book into the window. This takes directly to the product
        page for the book. To purchase the item, selct "Add to Shopping Cart" on the
        right corner of the page. The shoppingcart technology processes the information
        and displays a list of items you have placed in the shopping cart. You then
        have the option of changing the quantity of each item, remove an item,
        check out, or continue shopping.
        Customers returning to Amazon can use its 1-click system. This allows the customer to reuse 
        previously entered payment and shipping information to place an order with just one
        click of the mouse.  This is an excellent example of how intelligently designed
        database application can make online business transactions faster and easier.
        Amazon operates on a secure server that protects your personal information.
        If you feel uncomfortable using your credit card on the Web, you can place your order through their
        Web site using the last five digits of your credit card, then you can call
        Amazon's Customer Service Department to provide the remaining numbers to
        complete your order.
        !966, Amazon innovated a unique e-commerce marketing strategy to bring new
        customers to their Web site. Companies and individuals can create an income stream
        in exchange for posting Amazon links on their Web sites, thus sending their
        visitors to Amazon. This is known as Amazon.Com Associate Program.
        2. Online-Auction: eBay case: WWW.EBAY.COM
        Created in 1995, eBay reportedly posts about 2 million unique auctions
        and 250,000 new items each day.
        The impact of eBay on e-business has been profound. the founders took a business
        model that was restrictive offline and brought it to the desktops of consumers
        worldwide. The business model is one of few that generates profit on the WWW. The bidding and 
        close interactions between buyers and sellers promotes a sense of community
        -a near addition that keeps them coming back.
        On eBay, people can buy and sell just about anything.
        The company collects a submission fee plus a percentage of the sale amount.
        The final fee is multitiered.
        for example, your product sells for $1500, then you would have a three-tiered
        final fee as follow:
               5% on the first $25
               2.5% on up to $1000 of the remaining selling price
               1.25% on the rest of the selling price.
               So, the selling price of $1500 would incur $31.88 in fees
        The submission fee is based on the amount of exposure you want your item
        to receive. For example, if you would like to be among the "Featured Auctions"
        in your specific product catagory, you can pay $14.95 for the auction period.
        And, for $99.95, your item will be listed on the eBay home page under "Featured Items.
        eBay uses a database to manage the millions of auctions that it offers.
        The database evolves dynamically as sellers and buyers enter personal identification and product
        information. When a seller enters a product to be auctioned, the seller provides a description of the
        product, keywords, initial price, date and persnal information. 
        This data is used to produce the product listings that the buyers see.
        eBay has spawned a number of new businesses that use the site as their means of
        selling products. These businesses depend on eBay to remain up and running 
        continuously. To avoid down time, companies make investments in
        "High-availability computing" and "Continuous-availability computing"
        High-availability computing attempts to minimize down time.
        Continuous-availability computing attempts to eliminate it completely.
        One key to such technologies is "fault-tolerant systems" that use Rerundancy.       
        For example, every crucial piece of hardware such as the processor, the disk 
        and the communications channel has one or more levels of backup, so, in a failure,
        the system shifts from a failed component to a backup component.
        The same is true of data. Companies cannot afford to lose their business data, 
        so the data too are maintained redundantly.
        There are several other online auction sites such as:
        3. Online Trading: WWW.Etrade.Com, www.fidelity.Com
        One of the leaders in online trading is E*TRADE.
        The company was founded in 1982 to offer online stock quotes to the nation's
        major investment firms.
        With the development of the Web, ETrade created a web site where individual investors 
        could manage their own investments without the need for brokers.
        Online trading is fast and cheap. Online trading companies like Etrade and
        Fidelity Investments have made investing in stocks and options accessible to a 
        larger audience.
        At Etrade, you can buy and sell and research stocks, bonds and other securities.
        If you have little knowledge about buying and selling stocks, Etrade offers
        two games in which you use fake game money to carry out stock trades and option trades.
        The Etrade games are a friendly way for beginners to experiment with online trading.
        Players compete for real cash prozes. The two players with the highest-valued
        portfolios at the end of each trading game receive $1000 each. 
        The trading games last one month. To play teh ETrade games and to learn more about
        online trading, visit ://WWW.Etrade.Com.
        4. Other E-Businesses
        E-commerce is forcing traditional offline companies to transform into e-businesses
        or else thhey risk losing market share to competitors, including fast-moving
        Internet start-ups.
        One of the best e-business success is Dell Computer Corporation.
        Dell took their thriving offline business and it into an e-business phenomenon, generating more
        than $30 million in sales through their Web site each day.
        Founded in 1984 as a mail-order catalog business, Dell's business model was to sell made-to-order computers
        directly to the customers. Their Web site is logically organized by 
        customer category and easy to use.    WWW.dell.Com
        Approximately two thirds of Dell's online sales are business-to-business transactions.
        Business-to-business e-commerce is growing exponentially. By one estimate,
        business-tp-business transactions could reach $1 trillion by 2004.
        Manufacturers, service companies and wholesalers that sell their products to other businesses
        are finding tremendous success online. Established companies that delay 
        shifting to e-commerce risk losing market share to fast-moving Internet start-up
        E-commerce is also creating opportunities for many new types of businesses.
        People are turning their hobbies into profitable businesses on the Web.
        There are companies such as "Ebates.Com" that does not have a product.
        It is simply an affiliate of many online retailers. 
        The company works as follows:
          1. "Ebates.Com" signs up with online merchants to be an affiliate
          2. Earns a referal fees each time a customer clicks from "Ebates.Com"
             to the merchant's site and makes a purchase.
          3. Customers sign up to become members.
             Each customer is given an Ebates.Com e-mail address that they must use
             for purchases.
          4. Each a customer makes a purchase after being referred to by "Ebates.com",
             the affiliated merchant sends back an email confirming the amount of the
             purchase to the customer's Ebates.Com address.
          5. Ebates.Com uses the purchase information to update the customer's account
             with the amoung of rebates owed.
          6. The company passes the referral fees it earns from its affiliates on to the
             individual customers.      
  A.5  Web Services: Unlocking databases to achieve "Interoperability"
        Web services refer to specific class of applications that use platform and 
        programming-language-neutral data representation and communications protocols
        to achieve interoperability.
        By using web services, companies can assure that their applications will communicate with
        those of their business partners and customers.
        According to one estimate, e-commerce revenue for 2002 was 3.2% of all US commercial
        transactions. ($72B out of $2.25Trillion). High-flying companies like Priceline.com
        continue to disappoint investors. And Time Warner has dropped its Internet half, AOL, from 
        its name, perhaps as a precursor to severing the company itself.
        Even within industries that the Web is dominating, such as travel bookings and music sales, 
        there is so much that can be done. 
        The reason is databases. Dusty musty databases filled with useful data that can be 
        much more useful if linked with other equally dusty databases; enormous databases that 
        are locked up inside ancient main frames and quaintly archaic minicomputers; 
        lonely databases residing on specialized file servers throughout an enterprise; 
        even modern databases on Web servers, all dressed up and ready to go, 
        but stuck in long-obsolete proprietary formats or accessible only through 
        hypermodern scripting languages.
        Second-generation E-commerce will depend on unlocking those databases.
        And it is starting to happen, thanks to a combination of modest technologies that together go 
        by the name of Web services. Web services are a way programmers can make  their
        databases available across the Web, let other programmers access their databases, 
        and tie these disparate databases together into services that are novel, 
        perhaps even wonderful.
        Travel agents could put together vacation packages from various airlines and hotel chains,
        extracting the best seasonal discounts automatically. A Web services-based wedding registry 
        wouldn't be limited to one department store.
        Beyond these consumer applications, over the next few years, Web servives will
        spur a transformation within a number of big companies including banking and insurance that
        really have not had a kick-start since the 1964 introduction of IBM 360 mainframe.
        Primary Technologies supporting Web Services.
               XML (Extensible Markup Langauage) an alternative to HTML (Data Format)
               SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) complementing HTTP (Transport Protocol)
               WSDL (Web Services Description Language) standard for site description, and
                 (for efficient search of web site providing web services wanted)
               UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration) for site registry.                 
                 (like yellow pages for organizing companies providing web services)
  B. Some Social Implications
     B.1 Some examples
     B.2 Security
     B.3 Employment
     B.4 Computer Crime
   B.1 Some Examples
        Scenario-1: Exploring Private Systems.
        Dave, a high school sophomore is an avid computer fan.
        He has learned how to program in several languages and spends
        a good deal of his free time accessing local public bulletin
        board systems on his father's computer.
        Dave's father has a computer in their home so that he can
        work in the evenings  and on the weekends when needed.
        Dave's father has encouraged him to learn about computers and 
        has even set up a separate account on CompuServe, he has become
        interested in other private systems.
        Inside one of the private systems is a message board where
        hackers exchange information on their various exploits in attacking
        other private systems. Dave carefully reads these messages and often
        writes, explaining step-by-step how to access a local power 
        company's system. Dave often jokes about how he knows his father's
        electric bill before it is even received in the mail.
        Dave exploits other private systems, although he never changes
        the systems or any of the files available on-line. He simply
        enjoys the challenge of figuring out how to "crack" systems
        Scenario-2: Police Surveillance:
        Joe works as a computer systems operator for a local police force
        in the city of Omaha. Doris, a patrol cop, calls into the station
        from her patrol car. She has just obversed a driver that looks
        suspicious. Although the driver was not breaking the law, he was
        pressing the speed limit and constantly looking over his shoulder.
        Though it was hard to tell from the distance, he appeared to be 
        unkempt and unshaven. Doris took down his license plate number
        and is asking Joe to check the driver out on the system.
        joe uses the license plate number and calls up the file on Willis
        Hawk. Hawk, age twenty-five, was recently fired from his job
        at a local bakery. he is married and has two children under the 
        age of five, and lives in a middle-class Hispanic neighborhood.
        Although he is in good standing with the local power and telephone
        companies and his credit company, he is two payments behind on
        his mortagage. In the past five years, he and his wife attended
        several marriage counseling sessions. There is no record of
        Willis ever being arrested or convicted of any crime, but a year
        ago, the bakery that he worked for reported an internal theft
        and requested that Willis undergo a lie detector test.
        He was cleared. Joe conveys all of this information to Doris
        and she decides to follow Willis for a while longer.
        Scenario-3: Borrowing Computer Code.
        Jean, a systems programmer, is trying to write a new tutorial for
        use of her company's computer system, which will be used in other
        office branches nationwide. Now, after months of tedious programming,
        she has found herself stuck on several parts of the program.
        Her manager, not recognizing the complexity of the problem, wants
        the job completed within the next few days. Jean does not know
        how to solve the problem, but she realizes that there are several
        pieces of commercial software that handle similar problems quite
        nicely. Upon analysis of two of these programs, she sees two areas
        of code that could be directly incorporated into her own program.
        She uses these segments of code. The problems she was having
        are solved. She completes the project and turns it in a day
        ahead of time.
   B.2  Security
          Authentication issue
            Assurance that the communicating entity is the one that it claims to be.
            In particular, the sender of message is legitimate.
          Integrity issue
            Assurance that data received are exactly as sent by an authorized sender.
            In particular, the message is not illegimately altered by the third party with no authorization
          Confidentiality issue
            The protection of data from unauthorized disclosure.         
            Access only by the authorized party, in particular, the receiver.
          Non-repudiation issue
            No denial that the message was not sent or received.
        Some protocols for transaction security:
        Everyone using the Web for e-commerce needs to be concerned about the security
        of their personal information.
        There are several protocols that provide transaction security.
        1. SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)
        Developed by Netscape Communications, itis commonly used to secure communications on the Web.
        It is built into Web Browsers including Netscape and Microsoft IE.
        It operates at the network level, between the Internet's TCP/IP communications protocol and
        the appliation software.
        In a transaction using SSl, the sockets are secured using public-key 
        Although SSL protects information as it is passed over the Internet, it does not protect
        private information such as credit-card number stored on the merchant's
        server often after merchants receive and decrypt them before storing
        them on their servers.
        2. SET (Secure Electronic Transaction)
        Developed by VISA International and MasterCard was designed specifically
        to protect e-commerce payment transactions.
        It uses digital certificates to authenticate each payment in an e-commerce transaction.
        including the customer, the merchant and the merchant's bank.
        Public-key cryptography is used to secure information as it passes over the Web.
        Merchants must have a digital certificate and "Digital Wallet" software.
        A digital wallet is similar to a real wallet. It stores credit card (debit)
        information for multiple cards as well as a digital certificate verifying
        the cardholder's identity. Digital wallets add convenience to online 
        shopping; customers no longer need to re-enter their credit
        card information at each different site.
        In the SET protocol, the merchant never actually sees the client's
        proprietary information. Therefore, the client's credit-card number is not
        stored on the merchant's server. So, this method reduces the risk of fraud.
   B.3  Employment
    1. Changing Nature of Work
        a. Job elimination and creation
            Increased productivity from computerization ->
            Reduced working hours and more leisure?
            or fewer jobs and more unemployment?
            or little change in working hours and more wealth?
            or less wealth?
        b. Telework/telecommuting
            describing the growing phenomenon of people working at a distance from
            traditional company office , connected by computers.
            The physical distribution of population will be changed as computers and
            communications networks make it possible for companies to locate in small
            towns and work with dispersed consultants instead of having hundreds of 
            thousands of employees  in larger population centers.
            And, as more people work at home, they can live further from business center.
        c. Employer monitoring
           Computers are giving employers increased power to monitor the work,
           communications and movements of employees while giving some employees
           more autonomy. These changes affect the productivity, privacy and morale of employees.
        d. Changing Business Structure: Many soeculations on business size/structures
        e. Health issues 
           Use and manufacture of computers raise some health problems.
    2.  Job elimination and creation.
        The number of bank tellers dropped by about 37% from 1983 to 1993.
        A study by Deloitte and Touche predicted  that another 450,000 bank jobs would
        be lost by the year 2000 because of automation and electronic banking services.
        Electronic calculators made slide rules, used by engineers since the 17th century,
        The number of telephone operators dropped from 250,000 in 1956 to 60,000 in
        1995 and is expected to drop further.
        The job of 35,000 electric meter readers will soon disappear as utility companies
        continue to install electronic devices that will broadcast meter readings to
        company computers.
        As more shopping is done online, there will be fewer jobs for sales clerks.
        A bank holding company receives 1.5 million customer inquiries by phone each
        month; 80% are handled by computers. The company reduced the number of
        customer service employees by 40%.
        The New York Stock Exchange is eliminating the jobs of some 140 runners
        who carry paper messages between brokers; they are being replaced by cellular
        Travel agencies are closing as customers are making plane reservations via online
        As more cameras record images in digital form, film processors will go out of
        On the other hand, there are now people who build automated teller machines and
        write software for them. And people who design , build and program the
        electronic calculators and computers that replaced slide rules and telephone
        Besides computers themselves, there are countless new products that use computer
        Technology: VCR, computer games, fax machines, cellular phones, automobile, 
        New products create new jobs in design, marketing, manufacturing, sales,
        customer services, repair and maintenance.
        Industries that benefit from improved information management are hiring
        thousands of people in job categories that barely existed a decade ago. The
        United Parcel Service of America, for example, now has some 3000 information
        Technology workers; it had only 90 in 1983.
        Overall effect of computers?
        We are still in the transition to a computerized society. Incredible innovations
        in communications are likely to burst onto the market in the next decade.
        Cyberspace is still a frontier, just on the verge of being developed. The world of
        online and interactive entertainment, commercial and information services is
        likely to expand enormously. It is too soon to try to total up the number of jobs
        created and eliminated by computers, but the net effect of computers will be a
        The most common meaning is working for an employer at a computer-equipped office in 
        the employee's home. Some large businesses have set up satellite "Telecommuting 
        Centers" with computer and communications equipment located closer to where their 
        employees live than to the main business office.
        In some jobs, such as sales, the office is mobile: The employee travels with a laptop 
        computer and wireless communications equipment.
        Telecommuting also includes running a business from one's home that relies heavily on 
        computers and communications.
        The rapidly dropping costs of communications and information transfer have encouraged 
        these practices.
        Some figures:
        a.  Some 21 million Americans work at home at least one day a week, using computers
            and telecommunications technology.        
        b.  The number of home offices approximately doubled between 1988 and 1995.
        c.  The number of full-time telecommuters has increased from approximately 3-4
            millions in 1990 to 8-10 millions in 1995.
        d.  Nearly 4 million people run home-based businesses.
        1. Reduced overheads
           The main advantages for employers are reduced overheads and, in some cases, 
           increased productivity. For companies that set up scattered telework centers in suburbs to 
           replace large downtown offices where real estate and office rental prices are high, the 
           savings can be significant. For those that have moved their employees all the way to their 
           homes or cars (e.g. sales people), savings include closure of dozens of branch offices.
           Studies in areas where work is easy to measure show a productivity increase of some 15%.
        2. Energy savings.
           Telecommuting reduces rush-hour traffic congestion and associated pollution and energy 
           use. A percent decrease in urban commuting could reduce gasoline usage by a few 
           million barrels per year.
           Telecommuting reduces expenses for commuting and work clothes. It saves time.
        3. Child care cost reduction.
        4. Help employees live in suburbs.
        1. Lack of immediate supervision -> can lead to less productivity.
        2. Working with young children
           It can become an advantage but also a distraction to some.
        3. Missing social interaction -> can lead to less productivity and low morale.
        4. Lack of visibility
           Some employees fear that they are handicapped for promotion and special bonus due to 
           lack of visibility in the office.
    4. Changing business structures
           Currently there are many speculations about the impact of computers and 
           telecommunications networks on the size and structure of business.
           Some see trends toward smaller businesses and more independent consultants and 
           contractors—"Information entrepreneurs" as they are sometimes called. Working at home 
           or at telework centers not operated by one's own company loosens the tie between 
           employer and employee. Company loyalty and identification may decrease.
           A study of a large sample of US companies found that between 1975 and 1985 the 
           average number of employees declined by 20%. It also found a correlation between more 
           computer usage and smaller firm size.  The reason, however, was not that computers put 
           people out of work but rather that firms narrowed the focus of their activities, purchasing 
           more components and services from other firms. The study argues that computers and 
           telecommunications networks reduce the cost and uncertainty of finding and relying on 
           suppliers and consultants.
           Of course, sometimes, legal, tax and regulatory framework  has an enormous impact, 
           sometimes indirectly or unidentified, on business size, structure and employment 
           patterns. These effects may prevent or slow down changes that computers may otherwise cause.
           Some foresee computers contributing to the growth of large, multinational corporations, 
           with mergers between giant companies. There have been many big mergers and buy-outs 
           in the past decade and more are being negotiated regularly. At the same time, some large 
           companies, like AT&T, are splitting up into smaller units.
           It is not clear how much of this business concentration or downsizing comes from the 
           power of centralized computer systems and how much from economic and political 
           factors, though.
    5. Employee monitoring.
        a. Precomputer monitoring
           Mostly for blue-collar and pink-collar workers, not constant, seen by the
        b. Computer monitoring.
           Professional workers also included, constant, more detailed, and not seen 
           by the employees.
           Electronic monitoring of details of performance, such as keystrokes or time 
           spent on customer service calls.
           Physical surveillance of the movements and activities of employees
           Monitoring of customer service telephone work
           Access to e-mail, voice mail, and computer files of employees.
  Guidelines for monitoring:established by Unions 
  1.    Monitoring and evaluation procedures should be explained fully to employees.
  2.    Employees should be told when they are hired that business calls may be monitored.
  3.    Only business calls can be monitored, not personal ones. Employers should provide 
        unmonitored telephones for personal calls.
  4.    Employees whose performance is criticized should have access to monitoring data 
        and an opportunity to challenge the evaluation.
  5.    Problems uncovered by monitoring should lead to more training. There should be no 
        disciplinary action unless the employee fails to improve.
  6.    Employees should be involved in setting up procedures for monitoring.
  7.    Monitoring should not be continuous; it can be periodic.
  8.    Statistics on productivity should not be maintained for individual workers, but only 
        for groups.
  9.    Employees with more than five years' experience should not be monitored at all.
 10.    Workers should be informed each time they are to be monitored, not just in general.
  B.4 Computer Crimes
B.5 Distance Learning and Future Schools.
Distance Learning involves the use of information and telecommunication 
technologies such as the Internet to provide educational and training material.
It includes such online services and resources as online libraries, online journals,
Online encyclopedias and online courses.
a.    Availability
·         In isolated and remote areas
·         People with special needs, the elderly and people in hospitals or prisons.
b.    Access Equality: Knowledge provided to many people worldwide.  
c.    Flexibility
·         Easy and quick research
·         Save time and money
·         Able to study without losing their jobs.
·         Able to study at their own convenience.
d.    Employment: More teaching jobs for teachers and academics.
a.    Reliability of Resources.
·         Is the online material relevant to the courses?
·         Is it trustworthy and scientifically justifies?
·         Is it censored or biased due to cultural or political beliefs or prejudices?
b.    Information Accessibility
      To what extent do search engines and other online sources guide users 
      Properly to the appropriate e-learning resources?  
c.    Plagiarism
·         Is e-learning material protected by copyright law?
·         Is the material secured against plagiarism or malpractice?
d.    Cost
·         Buying all the necessary equipments for access
·         To what extent do governments promote and support e-learning courses?
e.    Dehumanization
·         Is e-learning an appropriate educational method?
·         E-learning like any other remote learning method results in a lack of contact between the student and the teacher.
·         This lack of interaction creates educational and psychological problems both for students and teachers.
·         Lack of contact diminishes the human factor that is essential in the transmission and communication of knowledge.
·         E-mail and other online contact methods aim to reduce the problem.
·         As education is an active and not a passive activity, human interaction is in most cases necessary. Educational institutes that offer e-learning services usually suggest arranged meetings between students and teachers. (However, physical distance like Phoenix and Beaumont may be a negative factor.)
Future Schools
a. IT applications in schools
·         Software applications such as educational simulations and tutorials, computer hardware such as laptops and notebooks, high-tech media such as digital video and interactive television and the Internet have been effectively introduced in classrooms.
·         Computer systems are also used in school administration for such purposes as student database management, library organization and school security.
·         Internet enables students to download books from electronic libraries rather than carrying them out of bookstores.
·         Who is going to guarantee the quality and reliability of these resources?
b.        Characteristics of Future Schools.
·         Students and teachers both use information and telecommunication technologies systematically in the classroom.
·         “Small Classrooms” contain high-tech computer systems that inspire and provide an easy, secure learning environment.
·         Good example:  Don Estridge High Tech Middle School in Florida.  
Most gadget-laden campus pumped up with electronics for pedagogy, connectivity and surveillance.
·         Wireless microphones, virtual reality and scientific simulations, handheld microphones for answering questions and smart boards aim to enhance students’ education.
·         Lessons are recorded for future educational purposes or for the absent students.
·         Security is also improved: Biometric systems (like hand scanners) authenticate students’ identity and record their attendance.
·         Surveillance cameras and microphones monitor activities inside and outside the classroom.
c.        Some concerns.
·         Students’ high dependence on computers may have negative effects such as: 
        Loss of skills (like Grammar and Spelling) and 
        computer addiction.  
·         Spelling-checkers may weaken students’ spelling capabilities and cause mental laziness.
·         This fear of technology (also known as technophobia) includes a general skepticism about information and telecommunication technologies.  
·         Technophobia originates in Thamus’ criticism of the invention of writing (writing will kill memory), continues with Gutenberg’s invention of publishing (books will kill writing) and culminates with the information age (computers will kill books)